Developing a Mindfulness Skill Educational Package Specific for Children with Oppositional ‎Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Examining its Effectiveness on the Child, Parent, Teacher, and ‎Peers Interactions

Document Type : Research Paper


1 psychology department, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (khorasgan) Branch, Isfahan, Iran.

2 psychology department ,Isfahan University, Isfahan University, Isfahan, Iran.


children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and examining its effectiveness on the child, parent, teacher, and peers interactions.
Method: This research has used a mixed type method. In the conducted qualitative stage, the grounded theory method was used. To analyze the data, thematic analysis was used and the educational package was developed and validated. In the quantitative section of the research, the quasi-experimental design of heterogeneous groups was used. A total of 40 subjects were selected by convenient sampling method and they were assigned into two experimental and control groups. The instruments used in the current research included Pianetta Parent-Child Interaction Questionnaire, Student and Teacher Communication Questionnaire.
Results: Based on the implementation of the follow-up test, the collected data were analyzed using repeated measures test ANOVA. The results of this research suggested that the effect of mindfulness education on the variables of conflict and interaction with peers was significant. In the post-test, the scores had improved, but this effect was not maintained in the follow-up test. However, in other variables (closeness, dependency, and interaction with the teacher), the effect of mindfulness education was not significant.
Conclusion: The components of the mindfulness educational package (specific for ODD children) were identified using library studies and through interviewing with child psychology specialists. The review of theoretical and research showed that the role of teachers in the interaction of students and teachers is more prominent than the role of students in this interaction. Therefore, teacher's behaviors are more important in improving child and teacher interaction and should be the focus of interventions