Self-Criticism and Self-Compassion among Patients with Autoimmune, Non-autoimmune Disorders and Healthy Individuals in Bandar Abbas

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Faculty of Psychology, Bandar Abbas Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas, Iran,

2 Faculty of Science and Director of the Department of Psychology, Bandar Abbas Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas, Iran

3 Faculty of Medicine, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran,

4 Faculty of Human Sciences, Hormozgan University, Bandar Abbas, Iran,



Background and Objective: The purpose of this study was to test and present a causal model of psychological self-esteem based on self-knowledge and feelings of shame and guilt, with self-critical mediation and compassion in three groups of healthy individuals, autoimmune patients and non-autoimmune patients in Bandar Abbas.
Method: The design of this study is correlational. The statistical population of the present post-event study included 360 patients including 120 patients with autoimmune diseases, 120 patients with non-autoimmune diseases referring to the Great Prophet's Therapeutic Complex in Bandar Abbas in 2019, and 120 healthy individuals. In the present study, autoimmune patients will be selected by simple or accessible sampling (easy sampling). All subjects will complete a self-report questionnaire, personal feelings (shame and guilt), compassion, and self-criticism. Descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation and correlation) were used for data analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha, Spearman-Brown split, and Gutman split will be used to determine validity and reliability. Results: The analyzes of the underlying assumptions of structural equation modeling as well as broader and more sophisticated analyzes will be performed to evaluate the fitness of the proposed model, all of which will be applied through statistical equation modeling, using maximum likelihood estimation. Indirect path relations will also be used by the proposed method of Baron and Kenny and Cohen and Cohen. In the proposed model of the present study, psychological self-destruction based on self-knowledge (dependent variable) as a latent variable, variables of feelings of shame and guilt (independent variable), as exogenous variables and variables of self-compassion and self-criticism, as endogenous or mediating variables defined.
Results: The results showed that feelings of shame and guilt and self-criticism bears a positive and significant relation with self-destruction based on self-knowledge, and self-compassion bears a negative and significant relation with self-destruction based on self-knowledge. The average of feelings of shame and guilt and self-destruction based on self-knowledge in men is higher than women, and the average of self-criticism in women is higher than men. The findings were discussed in accordance with the teleological coherence’s hypothesis in the coordinated function of the immunological, neurological and psychological systems and the basis for designing appropriate cognitive therapies for autoimmune patients.
Conclusion: The results showed a relatively good fit of the data model. The mediating effect of self-criticism and self-compassion on the relationship between self-destruction and feelings of shame and guilt was also confirmed.